How cities' actors prepare for the possible arrival of autonomous vehicles. A study about the Paris metropolis.

Type de publication:

Conference Paper

Source:

Gerpisa colloquium, Paris (2019)

Mots-clés:

véhicule autonome

Résumé:

<!--[if gte mso 9]>

Normal
0


21


false
false
false

ES
X-NONE
X-NONE


























<![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]>
DefSemiHidden="true" DefQFormat="false" DefPriority="99"
LatentStyleCount="267">
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Normal" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="heading 1" />


















UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Title" />

UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtitle" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Strong" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Emphasis" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Table Grid" />

UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="No Spacing" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 1" />

UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="List Paragraph" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Quote" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Quote" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 1" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 2" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 3" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 4" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 5" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3 Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid Accent 6" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Emphasis" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Subtle Reference" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Reference" />
UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Book Title" />



<![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 10]>

<![endif]-->

Embedding the automobile in societal contexts :
a new mobility paradigm ?

 

At present, I am in the middle of my research for my doctoral thesis, finishing the study of the first territory I decided to look at : the metropolitan area of Paris. The main theme of my research is the autonomous mobility and I approach the subject through the angle of urban studies.

The purpose of the research is to understand how cities' actors prepare for the possible arrival of autonomous vehicles. I would like to analyze the possibilities of a territory to organize the mobility of tomorrow despite the huge economical power of industries. We cannot know yet how will autonomous vehicles be and which impact they will have, we only have hypothesis about it, but we can already know how territorial actors face the question : do they think autonomous vehicles will be rather a menace or an opportunity ? An evolution or a revolution ? Are they proactive or reactive in front of them ?

The ambition for the whole doctoral thesis is to make an international comparison between three different territories in the world  : Paris, Abu Dhabi and Bogota. Nevertheless, only the first territory has already been studied.

My proposal for the 27th International Gerpisa Colloquium is to talk about my research about that territory : Paris metropolis. I will try to answer the main question of the colloquium about the possibility of a paradigm shift of the automobile industry. I will treat that subject through the point of view of metropolitan actors, using the example of the possible arrival of autonomous vehicles to Paris.

 

The main methodology used is to interview the main actors of the metropolitan area. The objective is to make around 20 interviews in each territory. Those actors are from public institutions and from private companies, they occupy a technical post or a political function, sometimes they have the power to take decisions and sometimes they have an influence on the decisions that are taken. Interviews aren't the only method used : there is also a lecture of scientific literature, the assistance to conferences and colloquiums and an analysis of the local press.

 

The research is still not completely finished. Consequently, it is still difficult to present the main results. However, it is possible to present some provisional results. There are, for example, some elements that appear frequently in interviews : 

·         An opposition emerges in the speeches between autonomous shuttle buses and individual vehicles. The difference between personal or shared vehicles does not appear as a crucial difference. This is probably due to the fact that shuttle buses would be managed by collectivities, while individual vehicles would probably be private, and it does not matter if they are owned by a person or a company.

·         Other possibilities of autonomous vehicles are not taken into account in the speeches, unless a question is asked about it, like for example autonomous trucks or urban logistics of last kilometer.

·         An autonomous vehicle will necessarily be a connected vehicle.

·         Consequently, the funding model of the specific connected infrastructure will become one of the main keys for the development and regulation of autonomous vehicles.

·         The principal power owned by the collectivities to face the economical power of the industries is their capacity to manage and regulate the public space.

·         Autonomous vehicles will produce a big risk of segregation of public space.

Some intuitions can also be drawn from interviews :

·         Speeches are strongly marked by the kind of structure the person interviewed belongs.

·         Speeches from interviews are strongly influenced by the most mediated speeches from industries and engaged companies.

 

The practical implications of that research are, firstly, to understand which capacity to act have cities in the regulation and organization of autonomous mobility and, more generally, mobility of tomorrow. If cities' actors are aware about what they can do, which are their possibilities and their tools, they won't be overwhelmed by the arrival of autonomous vehicles, whatever will be the form they will take. In consequence, cities actors will manage to better direct the development of autonomous mobility in their territory to make better cities.